Compared to their forebears a century ago, Australians today are older, have fewer children, reside more frequently in urban areas, and were more likely to be born outside of the United Kingdom. Australia's population nearly reached 4 million by the time of Federation in 1901, largely as a result of the many gold rushes that took place there in the 19th century. Natural increase drove population growth in the first half of the 20th century. This occurred because of an increase in births relative to deaths brought on by the general improvement in the standard of living. However, with the end of World War II came an increase in the total fertility rate and Australia began a concerted effort to increase its population by beginning an immigration programme.
Counting The Australian Population
Every five years, the Australian Bureau of Statistics conducts the Census of Population and Housing (or the "Census") to collect data on the country's population and housing conditions. The bureau also produces quarterly estimates of Australia's resident population (ABS). Both approaches are used to analyse the make-up of a given area's inhabitants. People can be counted in two different ways by the Census: either by their usual residence or by where they happened to be at the time of the enumeration.
In Australia, everyone is counted on Census Night based on their location, so it is important to know where you will be on that night if you want an accurate count. The Australian Bureau of Statistics gathered this information through their census. It's possible they don't actually hang out here frequently. Neither foreign diplomats stationed in Australia nor their families nor Australian citizens who were travelling abroad on the night of the census were included in this tally.
The term "census count by place of usual residence" describes a method of determining a population's size that takes into account everyone's primary residence. This data was collected from the census question asking about the respondent's usual place of residence. People who are temporarily in an area are not included in the standard Census count of residents.
The estimated resident population (ERP) is the official estimate of the population of Australia. It's calculated by adding the number of Australian citizens and permanent residents who were presumed to have been temporarily overseas on Census night to the estimated number of people who were missed on Census night (the Census nett undercount) and the number of people counted by place of usual residence in the Census. The ERP is calculated by adding these two numbers together. The calculation does not account for short-term visitors from other countries who were in Australia on the night of the Census. The estimated population at the start of each period is used to calculate Post-Census ERP by factoring in both natural increase and nett overseas migration. This action follows the conclusion of the census.
Population Growth Of Melbourne
A review of the past eight years reveals that Melbourne's population growth rate has been quite stable, hovering between 1.67 and 6.23 percent annually, or an increase of between 70,000 and 280,000 residents annually. One factor in Melbourne's rapid population growth was the influx of new residents who had relocated there in search of better job prospects. The growth is also helped along by the influx of newcomers from other countries.
Year Population Growth rate
- 2011 3.85 million n/a
- 2012 4.09 million 6.23%
- 2013 4.18 million 2.20%
- 2014 4.25 million 1.67%
- 2015 4.53 million 6.59%
- 2016 4.67 million 3.09%
- 2017 4.82 million 3.21%
- 2018 5.00 million 3.73%
- 2019 5.191 million 3.82%
- 2020 5.33 million 3.69%
Demography Of Melbourne
Melbourne residents report the following five most common ancestries: English, Australian, Irish, Scottish, and Italian. Other than English, the top five languages spoken in Melbourne, Australia are Cantonese, Italian, Greek, Mandarin, and Vietnamese. In addition, Cantonese is frequently heard and used. Most Melburnians were either born in Australia, England, India, China, New Zealand, or Italy. Fourty-eight percent of Melburnians are married, while 36 percent have never been married, 7 percent are divorced, and 2 percent are legally separated. Not only that, but 162,474 Melbourne residents have experienced the death of a spouse.
Population Density Of Melbourne
At 453.0 inhabitants per square kilometre, Melbourne easily surpasses all other Australian state capitals in terms of population density. Because so many people from other states and countries travel to Melbourne in search of employment, education, and entertainment opportunities, this is not a huge surprise to us. Nevertheless, Melbourne's population density is lower than that of New York City or London.
Position City Population Density
- 1 Melbourne 453/km2
- 2 Adelaide 404.205/km2
- 3 Sydney 400/km2
- 4 Perth 317.736/km2
- 5 Canberra 173.3/km²
- 6 Brisbane 145/km2
- 7 Hobart 124.8/km2
- 8 Darwin 44.976/km2
Occupations And Industries
Following are the top five jobs held by Melbourne locals. Twenty-four percent work in management and professional occupations, fifteen percent in clerical and administrative support, thirteen percent in technical and trades occupations, twelve and a half percent in sales and marketing, eight and a half percent in direct customer service, seven and a half percent in construction and extraction, six and a half percent in transportation and utilities, and two and a third percent in occupations that are either not specified or inadequately described.
Melbourne's workforce is split fairly evenly between the health care and social assistance industry (11.1%), manufacturing (10.8%), retail (10.6%), the professional, scientific, and technical services industry (9.1%), the education and training industry (8.0%), the construction industry (8.0%), the accommodation and food services industry (5.9%), the public administration and safety industry (5.1%), and the transportation and warehousing industry (5.0%).
Components Of Population Growth
Net overseas migration (NOM) is the difference between the number of people leaving a country legally and the number of people leaving illegally. Net overseas migrants include anyone who enters Australia and stays for 12 months or more within a 16-month period. These people are now reflected in the ERP. During the 16-month ERP period, nett overseas migrant departures are the number of people who were counted but later removed because they had lived overseas for 12 months or more. Visitors staying in Australia for less than a year are excluded from the tally, while international students studying in Australia for more than a year are included. The ABS uses quarterly NOM data provided by the Department of Home Affairs to produce official estimates for that quarter (Home Affairs).
Population Growth In Australia
Since Federation, Australia's population has varied from periods of very high growth to periods of slow growth, as shown in Figure 2. During World War 1, there was negative population growth (-0.9 per cent in 1915–16) due to soldiers going overseas; emerging from World War 1, the population grew rapidly (3.3 per cent in 1918–19), followed by a considerable drop during the Great Depression of the 1930s (falling to 0.7 per cent in 1933–34). Following World War II, annual growth reached 3.4 per cent in 1949–50 and peaked at 4.5 per cent in 1971. During this period (the early 1950s to early 1970s), the average annual growth was 2.2 per cent. After a relatively slow growth period during the 1980s and 1990s, Australia's population growth rate increased again in the mid-2000s peaking in 2008–09 at 2.1 per cent. In 2016–17, the growth rate was 1.7 per cent.
It is important to note that Australia's population growth varies widely across states, territories, and sub-regions. In general, Australian cities have grown strongly whilst growth in regional areas has been mixed. Over the last decade, migration has contributed particularly strongly to population growth in Sydney, Perth and Melbourne. Regional population growth is discussed in more detail later in this Quick Guide.
Components Of Migration
A range of visa categories contributes to NOM, including temporary visas (i.e. students and long-term visitors), permanent settlers, plus Australians returning home or leaving the country.
According To The Abs:
Home Affairs manages and grants visas each year. It is important to note there is a difference between when Home Affairs issues a visa and when and how they may impact NOM and, therefore, Australia's estimated resident population. For example, there can be a lag between a visa being granted and the actual use of that visa by the applicant on entering Australia for many visas. Also, some travellers who have been granted permanent or long-term temporary visas may end up staying in Australia for a short period of stay or not at all. In addition, travellers may also apply for and be granted a different visa whilst in Australia or overseas.
Every five years, the Australian Bureau of Statistics takes a count of the country's residents and their dwellings. The place where a person is most likely to be when an enumeration is conducted is taken into account. Present-day Australians tend to be older, have fewer children, and concentrate in urban areas. Annual population growth in Melbourne ranges from 1.67 percent to 6.23 percent, or from 70,000 to 280,000 people. The majority of Melbourne residents did not originate in the city, with many hailing instead from other countries such as England, India, China, New Zealand, and Italy.
Cantonese, Italian, Greek, Mandarin Chinese, and Vietnamese rank among the top five most spoken languages in Melbourne. But it has a much smaller population than either New York or London. In Melbourne, the five most common occupations are management, office work, technical and trades, marketing, and customer service. What we call "nett overseas migration" (NOM) is the sum of legal and illegal emigration from a country. If you enter Australia and stay for more than 12 months in any 16-month period, you are considered a Nominated Migrant (NOM).
The ABS has updated its annual population estimates to account for these people. Throughout history, Australia's population has grown both quickly and slowly. After World War One, the population grew rapidly (3.3% in 1918–19), then declined during the Great Depression. Larger cities have seen more consistent growth than smaller towns or rural areas in Australia. The Australian Bureau of Statistics has released data on the annual influx and ebb of visitors to the country (ABS).
Since there were fewer arrivals (78,890) than departures, a negative nett migration (NOM) resulted (93,140). According to Table 1, the NOM for Australian citizens in the 2016–2017 fiscal year was -14,250. The following groups fit the profiles of the fastest-growing demographics. Yuroke, the Mickey Mouse of Japan (33 percent). More than a quarter of Melburnians call the city's western suburbs home. People born in a country other than Australia made up 38% of Melbourne's population.
- Australians today are older, have fewer children, are more likely to live in urban areas, and were more likely to be born somewhere other than the United Kingdom than their forebears a century ago.
- Nearly 4 million people called Australia home by the time of Federation in 1901, a number largely attributable to the continent's many gold rushes in the nineteenth century.
- To tally up Australia's people would be to add up all of its residents.
- Australian population is officially estimated at the estimated resident population (ERP).
- When looking at the past eight years, we see that Melbourne's population growth rate has been relatively stable, increasing by somewhere between 1.67 and 6.23 percent annually, or between 70,000 and 280,000 residents.
- Melbourne's population density of 453.0 people per square kilometre far outstrips that of any other capital city in Australia.
- Nonetheless, compared to New York City or London, Melbourne has a significantly lower population density.
- To calculate nett overseas migration (NOM), subtract the legal emigration total from the illegal emigration total.
- All foreign nationals who enter Australia and remain there for 12 months or more within a 16-month period are counted as nett overseas migrants.
- While natural increase accounted for 36.0% of Australia's population growth in 2016–2017, NOM accounted for 64.0%.
- The increase in NOM in recent years has not been due to a rise in permanent settlers, which is an interesting trend to keep in mind.
- It is clear from looking at Figure 2 that the rate of population growth in Australia has fluctuated since the country gained its independence.
- After World War I, the population grew rapidly (3.3% in 1918–19), but then it dropped significantly (to 0.7% in 1933–34) due to the Great Depression.
- Migrants have been a major factor in the recent population increases in Sydney, Perth, and Melbourne.
- A student who arrives on a temporary visa but later applies for a permanent one is not reflected in the ABS because of this limitation.
- Table 1 shows that between 2006-07 and 2016-2017, temporary visa holders were the main contributors to NOM.
- It has been hypothesised that Australia could experience a nett outflow of people if the difference between the two were negative.
- This figure is often referred to as the "nett overseas migration" (NOM) rate.
- According to Table 1, the NOM for Australian citizens in the 2016–2017 fiscal year was -14,250.
- Since there were fewer arrivals (78,890) than departures, a negative nett migration (NOM) resulted (93,140).
- Over the past year, Riverstone and Marsden Park, located in north-west Sydney, saw an increase in population of 8,900.
- Wollert and Mickleham-Yuroke are two northern suburbs of Melbourne, with populations of 3,300 and 3,700, respectively.
- Chinatown in Melbourne, Australia, is the second-oldest in the world, having been established in 1854.
- The city is also well-known for its erratic climate, wherein any of the four seasons can be experienced within the course of a single day.
- In 2006, Melbourne, Australia, topped the list as the best city in the world for hosting international sporting events.
FAQs About Melbourne
In 2020, around 4.97 million people lived in Melbourne, making it the most populous city in Australia.
New South Wales is the most consistent performer in wealth and income and the only other state to have both income and wealth about the national average (12% on income and 13% on wealth).
Melbourne, Australia's largest urban area geographically with a population of just over four million, occupies the 32nd largest area in the world at 2,453 square kilometres, making it larger than London, home to 10.4 million people, and Mexico City, with 20.4 million residents.
According to Demographia's list, out of the 1,040 cities surveyed, Melbourne's population density of an estimated 1,500 people/ km2 is ranked 955th. The same Demographia-sponsored survey listed Sydney as 43rd in urban footprint size (2,037 km2).
As far as American city nomenclatures go, Melbourne could be called San Seattle! Melbourne has been likened to having the land area of Los Angeles but the population of San Francisco. In reality, greater Melbourne is about three quarters the size of greater L.A. and about half the population of greater San Francisco.
Melbourne is known for being one of the cleanest and greenest cities in the world. In 2015 it was named the world's most livable city by The Economist for the fifth year running.
OVERALL RISK: LOW. When the criminal against tourists is considered, Melbourne is believed to be a very safe city. The overall rating is 80% which makes it a place where tourists can feel safe walking around.