The tire bead is the reinforced section of the tire that comes in contact with the rim. It's responsible for creating and maintaining a seal between the wheel and tire to hold air.
The seal is achieved with the friction created between the wheel and the bead. Steel, copper, or other robust bands within the rubber bead help it retain its shape, maintaining the seal as the tire is subject to distortion and vibration.
Where Is the Tire Bead Located?
The bead sits at the inner lip of the tire that meets the wheel, opposite of the tire's tread. Imagine a tire without a wheel. The bead is easy to spot on a dismounted tire as it sits at the base of the sidewall and has a slightly wider profile. Also, just like sidewalls, your tire has two beads to meet the wheel.
If everything is in great shape, you won't see the bead of a mounted tire. It's hidden behind the raised edge of the wheel. About the only time, you would see it is if there is major damage done to the assembly, meaning you'll want to have the wheel and tire repaired or replaced.
What Are the Parts of a Tire
Rubber compounding is like mixing a cake recipe. First, different ingredients are mixed to produce compounds with specific characteristics. For example, the outside tread compound provides traction and mileage, whereas the rubber located inside the tire adheres to the belt system and provides stability to the tread area. In addition, rubber compounds may differ due to the variety of materials used in the tire.
Materials used by each tire manufacturer are chosen with individualized technology in mind. Each tire component is designed to provide benefits related to its function while still working with the other components. Learn more about how a tire is made from the U.S. Tire Manufacturers Association.
Tire components are assembled like a puzzle and moulded together in the curing process, which causes the tire components and rubber compounds to adhere to their surrounding components to create a singular product. The belt system's main function is to provide stability to the tire's tread area, contributing to wear, handling and traction. The belt system also works with the tire's sidewall and tread to achieve traction and cornering capabilities.
The tire casing is the tire's body and includes components such as the Bead, Sidewall, Body Ply and Innerliner. Basically everything except the Tread and Belt System.
The Body Ply
Most passenger tire casings are multi-ply and incorporate polyester, nylon or rayon cords within the casing rubber compound. These cords add strength to the casing rubber. Polyester is commonly used because it provides good rubber adhesion, excellent strength and good ride characteristics at a relatively low weight, and it also exhibits heat dissipation characteristics. Other fabric materials used in the tire casing include nylon and rayon, which exhibit slightly different benefits tuned to specific tire requirements.
A special rubber compound is used in the sidewall of the tire to add flexibility and weather resistance. Some tires, such as performance tires, may also incorporate steel and nylon inserts to provide a quicker steering response.
Tire bead bundles secure the tire to the wheel. They are large steel cords wound together to form a cable or ribbon-type configuration. The casing plies are looped around the bead bundles to hold them in place. Bead filler, a rubber compound, is incorporated into the bead configuration and extends into the sidewall. The rubber compound used on the outside bead area is usually a hard, durable compound that withstands the rigours of mounting the tire to the wheel.
A specific rubber compound is used as an air seal inside the tire. This inner-liner layer has no cord reinforcing and is similar to an inner tube.
The Belt System
The belt system is placed on top of the casing during the construction process. The belt system's main function is to provide stability to the tire's tread area, contributing to wear, handling and traction. Steel is the most common belt material. Steel belts provide strength and stability to the tread area without adding weight to the tire. Usually, two plies of steel cord placed at opposite angles make up the belt system. The most common belt configuration is two stacked plies of steel cord.
The tread slab is placed on top of the belt system during the manufacturing process. Tread usually contains two rubber compounds: tread base and tread cap. Tread base compounds adhere to the belt system when the tire is cured, improving durability and stabilizing the layers of polyester cords, called plies, which make up the under the tread. Tread cap is typically made with an abrasion-resistant, higher-grip rubber compound, which works with the tread base and design to provide traction and mileage. The tire's tread pattern is moulded into the tread cap rubber during the curing process.
Before knowing how to break a tire bead, it is essential to acknowledge your best tool. A Bead breaker is a car tool to separate tires from their rims. Different types of bead breakers have different ways of using. So let's jump right into answering the question "how to break a bead on a tire ":
Plier Type Mechanism
This bead breaker uses a plier-type tool to apply force between the bead and the rim's lip. The tool has a spike to perform this task. To be more precise, this spike imposes a force on the bead and the tire's sidewall to separate them. Therefore, it weakens and removes their connection. This plier type mechanism is amazingly effective and can get the job done very fast. However, it has its disadvantages. The spike is like a double-edged knife that might leave scratches on the surface and the wheels themselves. Not to mention, this plier type mechanism is very heavy and big, which requires your full body weight to get the results.
Shoe and Lever Mechanism
As the name said, the shoe and lever mechanism has a shoe-shaped tool that can apply pressure on the tire's sidewall. To break the connection between the bead and the rim, car owners must push the sidewall. This is, without a doubt, the most popular bead breaker among all since it works amazingly well on motorcycle tires, new passenger vehicle tires, as well as trailers' tires. The benefits of these bead breakers are quite a lot: First of all, it is very low cost so that anyone can purchase one for their vehicle. Second of all, the way to use it is quite simple and easy to follow. Last, of all, it is made for passenger cars' tires.
On the other hand, it does not work very well with old and hard-to-change tires. Moreover, since the shoe and lever mechanism is also large and bulky, this breaker can only be used on certain tires.
Clamp and Ram Mechanism
Last but not least, the quickest and most efficient break beads of all time: Clamp and Ram Mechanism. If the first two mechanisms cannot solve the problem with difficult-to-replace tires, this bead breaker can deal with all of them. This machine uses a pointed foot tool to exploit the space between the bead and the rim's lip to make it work. Not to mention, this bead breaker also has a padded clamp. Thus, the part can go inside the sidewall with little effort. Long story short, not only does this machine work with all types of tires with minimal human effort, but it also causes no harm to the sidewall or the tires. However, it is quite costly.
Why Remove the Tire Bead?
A couple of reasons you might want to remove the bead yourself are saving money and keeping up the maintenance. Breaking down the bead helps keep the rubber surface clean because it allows you to remove any dirt or debris that would otherwise be locked in the surface.
A mechanic can do the removal but will charge you for a simple task easily done in your driveway. So, let's learn how you can do it yourself.
How to Break a Tire Bead by Hand?
Step One: Position the Tire
Before you can get started on how to break a tire bead by hand, the first step is to position the tire on the ground.
You want the wheel to lay down flat on a hard surface. Working on concrete will be easier than on grass or dirt, where the surface may be uneven. You will need to release the air evenly before moving onto the following steps that require you to have a good grip on the tire.
Step Two: Release Air from the Tire
Releasing air from the tire will bring down the PSI or pounds per square inch, so the pressure against the wheel's rim will decrease. This will make it easier to separate the bead from the rest of the rubber. In any other circumstance, you want to make sure your wheels are properly inflated.
One method is to rotate the cap on the valve stem counterclockwise to expose the metal pin in the centre of the valve. Then, use a screwdriver, a pair of needle-nose pliers, or a similar small tool to press down on the metal pin.
Once enough air has been released, lift the tool off the pin, and the wheel will stop deflating. Replace the cap when finished.
If you want to deflate the tire entirely, you can unscrew the metal pin with a pair of needle-nose pliers. Air will escape much quicker.
Whichever method you choose, do not lose the cap for the valve stem or the metal pin. Keep them in a safe place until you are done.
Step Three: Prepping the Area
The next step leading to how to break a tire bead by hand is to prepare the area around the inner circle of the wheel. The rim will be easier to pull off when the PSI is below the necessary level for keeping the bead secure. If the tire bead is stubborn, you may need to either deflate it some more or apply more pressure by standing on the tire as you pull it apart.
Since the bead is held firmly against the rim by steel cable and glue, you need to use a lot of force to break the connection. Applying an automotive lubricant along the edge of the rim will make it easier to slide the rubber out from around it. To prevent the metal from being scratched, you can tape it before adding the lubrication.
Step Four: Separating the Bead
You want to push the rubber downward as hard as possible so the bead can pop out. Be careful to follow the seam to avoid damaging the metal rim. If you follow the prepping step above, the metal should be well protected.
The lining should be easy to grip and loosen until it can be pulled out from around the rim. The rim can also be removed without requiring additional tools or a machine. When the bead pops out, it will tear away from the rim.
Many people might be wondering, why do drivers need to learn how to break a tire bead? One of the reasons is that the process is simple to follow, even with beginning car owners. All drivers need is thirty minutes and this instruction. Another reason is that it provides a great help in cleaning up debris and dirt inside the tire. By breaking the bead, vehicle owners can remove the rubbish inside and reduce future problems. The last reason is to save the cost of paying a car maintenance specialist since you can remove the tire from its rim by yourself.
Frequently Asked Questions About Tire Bead
Whether or not a leaky bead can be repaired depends. In most cases where a slow leak is present, the bead may need to be reseated. That's also the case for many situations when a tire is knocked loose on the rim. However, as long as there's no serious damage, the beat can likely be reset, and you won't have to worry about it.
There is the chance that the bead is damaged, though. For example, the chords inside may have broken, the rubber seal might be torn, or a rough inside edge of a wheel might have chewed this portion of the tire to bits. In these cases, the tire will need to be replaced. If you're experiencing issues with the bead, it's best to consult a professional to assess the situation and determine the best course of action.
You break the bead of a tire by breaking the seal between the rim and the tire. You may need to do that to put a patch on the inside of the tire, replace the inner tube on a small tire, or swap tires for light applications.
It's a simple concept to break the bead. First, you need to drive the bead off its seat. That can be achieved with special machines, a dedicated bead-breaker, or special tire irons, all of which require unique steps.
Is it worth doing yourself? In some cases, it is. Those comfortable with tire repairs can easily perform the jobs requiring the bead to be broken on small tires in their home garage. However, you're better off taking care and truck tires to a professional shop. These repairs are super affordable, and it can be dangerous to attempt them yourself without the proper equipment.
Although the name may sound confusing, tire beads are simple. They're simply a structurally rigid ring in the tire that provides a seal with the wheel. They hold their position to keep the air pressure in the tire, and you shouldn't have any issues with them with normal, on-road driving.
Bead damage is caused by driving on over or underinflated tires that cause the bead to slip, which damages the bead. Also, smashing curbs or off-road obstacles with the sidewall can cause bead damage.
All of those issues are avoidable. However, what might not be avoidable is a subpar installation. If the installer uses the wrong tools or doesn't clean the surfaces correctly, your tire beads can quickly become damaged.
Here's the good news, your bead doesn't damage easily. So long as you're taking care of your tires, driving with care, and the tire is mounted properly, you should never run into issues with the bead.